Macroplastic Composition and Abundance in Costal Sediment of Muara Badak, East Kalimantan of Indonesia
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Rubbish/waste including plastic is a big problem in East Kalimantan. Societal awareness of the issue is still very low. Street food sellers, vendors and customers have a tendency to throw their litter directly into the drainage gutters than into the rubbish bins. As a result, it is easy to find rubbish everywhere, especially in the residential areas and within the water system. Moreover, after rain, rubbish such as plastic/styrofoam cups, mineral water bottles, and plastic snack packaging all eventually emerge to the surface, and litter the roads. Some rubbish from the mainland are swept by rain to the river, which then enter the coastal system, and eventually reaching the ocean. East Kalimantan still lacks data on plastic waste, but generally, the volume of rubbish in East Kalimantan is stated to increase rapidly every year. In 2015, East Kalimantan produced 654.310 tonnes of rubbish. Two years later, the amount of rubbish rose to 730.876 tonnes, and became 832.032,1 tonnes in 2018. The garbage was dominated by plastic litter. These circumstances have led to a rising concern, as well as pressure for the government to handle the management of plastic litter. The government has since then published regulation/policies regarding plastic matter. Yet still, the societal awareness of the issue is still low. In 2020, the Coronavirus outbreak has caused more public places to be closed. During this period, the amount of rubbish produced in East Kalimantan has decreased to 734, 595. Even so, more than half of that rubbish is still comprised of plastic litter. When plastic litter drifts to the water system, it could cause damage to the ecosystem. These plastics can cover the habitat of some species or cover the area of their breeding grounds. These plastics can also be swallowed or ingested by aquatic organisms, and endanger their lives. Therefore, some action needs to be taken, in order to avoid further damage to the environment.
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